Minor Athlete Abuse Prevention Policy (MAAPP)

UPDATED: December 22, 2021

The MAAPP applies to Adult Participants and their interactions with Minor Athletes in conjunction with USA Cycling activities. USA Cycling LAs and Clubs must adhere to MAAPP.

Establishing clear boundaries reduces the risk of physical, sexual, and emotional misconduct as well as opportunities for bullying, harassment, and hazing. Furthermore, the majority of child sexual abuse is perpetrated in isolated, one-on-one situations. By reducing such interaction between children and adults, programs reduce the risk of child sexual abuse. However, one-on-one time with trusted adults is also healthy and valuable for a child. Policies concerning one-on-one interactions protect children while allowing for these beneficial relationships. 

The U.S. Center for SafeSport and USAC recognize that youth-adult relationships can be healthy and valuable for development. Policies on one-on-one interactions protect children while allowing for these beneficial relationships. As child sexual abuse is often perpetrated in isolated, one-on-one situations, it is critical that organizations limit such interactions between youth and adults and implement programs that reduce the risk of sexual abuse.

The following policies have been adopted by USA Cycling (USAC) to establish clearly defined boundaries between participants in cycling and to reduce isolated one-on-one interactions between children and adults in cycling.


Adult Participant: Any participant (18 years of age or older) who is:

  1. A member of USAC, an LA, or a Club;
  2. An employee or board member of USAC, an LA, or a Club;
  3. Within the governance or disciplinary jurisdiction of USAC, an LA, or a Club;
  4. Authorized, approved, or appointed by USAC, an LA, or a Club to have regular contact with or authority over Minor Athletes[1].

[1] This may include volunteers, medical staff, trainers, chaperones, monitors, contract personnel, bus/van drivers, officials, adult athletes, staff, board members, and any other individual who meets the Adult Participant definition.

Authority: When one person’s position over another person is such that, based on the totality of the circumstances, they have power or right to direct, control, give orders to, or make decisions for that person. Also see the Power Imbalance definition in the SafeSport Code.

Club: A USA Cycling registered club.

Close-in-Age Exception: An exception applicable to certain policies when an Adult Participant does not have authority over a Minor Athlete and is not more than four years older than the Minor Athlete (e.g., a 19-year-old and a 16-year-old).

Dual Relationships: An exception applicable to certain policies when an Adult Participant has a dual role or relationship with a Minor Athlete and the Minor Athlete’s parent/guardian has provided written consent at least annually authorizing the exception.

In-Program Contact: Any contact (including communications, interactions, or activities) between an Adult Participant and any Minor Athlete(s) related to participation in sport.

Examples of In-Program Contact include, but are not limited to: races, training sessions, club rides, camps/clinics, training/instructional sessions, team travel, team- or cycling-related relationship building activities, celebrations, award ceremonies, banquets, team- or cycling-related fundraising or community service, or race site visits.

Local Affiliated Organization (LAO): A regional, state, or local club or organization that is directly affiliated with USA Cycling or that is affiliated with USA Cycling by its direct affiliation with a regional or state affiliate of USA Cycling [i.e., Local Association (LA) or Club].

Local Association (LA): Regional cycling organization affiliated by contract with USA Cycling.

Minor Athlete: An under 18 years of age who participates in, or participated within the previous 12 months in, an event, program, activity, or competition that is part of, or partially or fully under the jurisdiction of USAC, an LA, or a Club.

Partial or Full Jurisdiction: Includes any USAC sanctioned event or official LA or Club activity (including all travel and lodging in connection with the event), or any facility that USAC, an LA or a Club owns, leases, or rents for practice, training, or competition.

National Governing Body (NGB): A U.S. Olympic National Governing Body, Pan American Sport Organization, or Paralympic Sport Organization recognized by the U.S. Olympic & Paralympic Committee pursuant to the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act, 36 U.S.C. 220501, et seq. The definition shall also apply to the USOPC or other sports entity approved by the USOPC, when they have assumed responsibility for the management or governance of a sport included on the program of the Olympic, Paralympic, or Pan-American Games.

Adult Participant Personal Care Assistant: An Adult Participant who assists an athlete requiring help with activities of daily living (ADL) and preparation for athletic participation. This support can be provided by a Guide for Blind or visually impaired athletes or can include assistance with transfer, dressing, showering, medication administration, and toileting. Personal Care Assistants are different for every athlete and should be individualized to fit their specific needs. When assisting a Minor Athlete, Adult Participant PCAs must be authorized by the athlete’s parent/guardian.

Paralympic Sport Organization (PSO): an amateur sports organization recognized and certified as an NGB by the USOPC.

Regular Contact: Ongoing interactions during a 12-month period wherein an Adult Participant is in a role of direct and active engagement with any Minor Athlete(s).

U.S. Olympic & Paralympic Committee (USOPC): A federally chartered nonprofit corporation that serves as the National Olympic Committee and National Paralympic Committee for the United States.